Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH−). Depending on their ALDH activity, the transcriptome analysis of both cell populations demonstrated a differential pattern of genes related to the main properties of MSCs (proliferation, response to hypoxia, angiogenesis, phenotype, stemness, multilineage, hematopoiesis, immunomodulation). Based on these profiling, both AT-MSC populations could differ in terms of biological responses and functionalities. Collectively, the use of ALDH for isolating and identifying sub-populations of MSCs with specific gene profile may represent an alternative method to provide solutions for targeted therapeutic applications.